On Pitting Kpop Idols Against Non-Idols

Source: http://www.theloop.com.au/Versus/portfolio/Director/Sydney

When people talk about Kpop, granted, it’s usually about the idols.  But some people equate Kpop  with idol groups, and then conclude that they lack talent, and as a result, do not make “real” music like non-idols do.  However,  both idol and non-idol artists are a part of Kpop, and they have more in common than you may think.

One’s identity as an idol group can be a point of contention.   M.I.B. insists in an allkpop article:   “We’re not an idol group, and we want to prove this simply with our skill and expertise. We want to show you that we know how to have a good time on stage.” Aware of the negative perception some have of idol groups, Junsu of JYJ maintains in a Han Cinema article:  “”We are guaranteed to try many different things because we are an idol group. Some are trying to escape the image of an idol group because people tend to have a prejudice that idol groups have a lack of talent in music, but we want to show a whole new image of idol groups by showing that idols can have excellent music ability.” Both groups respond to perceptions about idol groups.

But what is the difference between an idol artist and a non-idol artist?  Idol groups, including BigBang, TVXQ!, 2NE1, MBLAQ, BEAST, Super Junior and SHINee, share certain charateristics that cause others to label them as idol groups.  They all are graduates of  a training system used by many Korean agencies, but pioneered by the former chair of SM Entertainment, Lee Soo Man.  Han Cinema refers to what Lee calls “the methods that we use when selecting and nurturing aspiring singers into real gems,” culture technology:    “CT includes not only the broad system itself but also the techniques we use to make music, choreography, music videos, live performances and even the stars’ makeup.”  As a result of this training, idol groups not only record albums and make music videos, but they also engage in a wide array of other activities, including:

MC-ing,

Eunhyuk and Leeteuk MC-ing SBS Awards

photoshoots,

TVXQ! at ElleGirl Photo Shoot

appearances on Korean televisions shows,

Shinhwa on Happy Together

appearances in their own reality shows,

Infinite on Sesame Player

stints as ambassadors,

2AM as Ambassadors for 2012 World Conservation Congress
Source: http://www.wkpop.com/2011/11/2am-initiated-as-ambassadors-for-2012.html

and spokespersons for a variety of products.

Kim Hyun Joong for The Face Shop
Source: http://koreangossipgirl.com/kim-hyun-joong-ss501-official-comeback-schedule-june-1-june-15-2011/

Because these activities give them greater exposure, idols are the face that many people see when they encounter Kpop.  But the very training that allows them to engage in these various pursuits is the very thing some people point to as evidence of their inferiority, their “fakeness.”    In a seoulbeats roundtable, Young-Ji suggests that they have limited careers:  “All the idol group members from the 2000s are currently nobodies — either that, or they’re trying to make something out of themselves — take a look at all the members of H.O.T., Sechs Kies, S.E.S., Fin.K.L; with the exception of only a few members and perhaps Shinhwa, it’s difficult for idols to redefine themselves.”  Nabeela, of the same roundtable, suggests the limited careers are related to a perceived lack of talent:   “Young’ins will always try to become idols due their lust for that glamor. On the other hand, serious musicians and artists know how fickle idol glamor can be, and I think they make an honest effort to differentiate.” Both imply that Kpop idols work hard to be temporary, fake artists, unlike “serious musicians.”

However, these are sweeping generalizations that are challenged by looking closer at idols.   Former idols continue to work using their talents honed by the training process.  For example,  three of the four former  members of Fin.K.L. are actively working.  Lee Hyori did a photo shoot for Ceci as recently as November of last year. Ok Joo Hyun starred in the successful Kdrama The Musical just last year, and will star with Junsu (of JYJ and formerly of TVXQ!) in the German musical Elisabeth. Sung Yu Ri frequently stars in successful Kdramas, including Hong Gil Dong (2008), Swallow the Sun (2009) and Romance Town (2011).  Kangta, Tony An, Moon Hee Joon and Jang Woo Hyuk of H.O.T. still make appearances and are still active musically through collaobrations with newer artists.  Kangta has assumed some administrative duties at SM Entertainment, thereby remaining active on the business side of Kpop.

Well, if idols are just talentless hacks, their non-idol counterparts are the talented underdogs of Kpop, or so the logic goes.   They are seen as more serious and more talented.  They are “real” artists who are not idols.  Jeon Jin Woo compares idols to airplanes and non-idols to chickens:

Entertainment companies select would-be singers based on their visual appearances; hence, someone who sings really well has a low possibility of becoming an idol singer if his/her looks are not good. This is why many talented, prospective and new singers go through difficult times. These people are often unable to live as flying birds (successful singers) but are only continuing their heavy flap of wings as chickens. . . .  Idols are not singers. The definition of a singer is a person or a musician who uses his/her voice to create and express music. According to the definition above, idol ‘singers’ cannot be singers. Idols put more effort on their appearances and dance skills. Furthermore, many of them do not have the ability to create their own music. What is more, singers should be able to convey a song’s melody, lyrics, and its embedded emotions to the audience.

But is there a great difference between idols and non-idols, especially when it comes to talent? There is far less distance between the two than one might think.  First, idols can be found singing some decidedly non-idol songs that show their vocal range.  Here is Onew of SHINee getting his disco on in his rendition of the Bee GeesHow Deep Is Your Love:

Onew has a penchant for taking the vocal path less traveled, as demonstrated by his performance of Puccini’s Nesseun Dorma:

Not only do idols sing things you woudn’t expect them to sing, they sing them well.  They have singing talent, and this is something that they share with non-idols.

Take 4Men, R&B group known for their vocal stylings, as an example. (seoulbeats considers them to be an idol group, but I do not. We can talk about why later).

4Men, Knocking

But 4Men know idol songs and dances.   Witness members of 4Men do their best impression of SNSD’s Oh!

That’s not the kind of choreography you get just by passing by the television while the video is on.  You have to study that. 4Men also covered Big Bang’s Love Song, a song by another idol group:

Non-idols sing idol songs, and vice versa.  Here is SHINee’s Jonghyun singing Wheesung‘s Insomnia:

While Jonghyun is known for being a member of the group SHINee, Wheesung is not known for being an idol.  He appears on Kpooop‘s list of Non-Idol Songs Worth Listening To.  Here is his original:

Wheesung, Insomnia

These examples suggests that idols and non-idols are part of a one large, diverse music scene.   Non-idols are quite aware of idols, and even know their songs and dances. Idols know their non-idol counterparts and appreciate their work. While they may go about their pop lives in different ways, they are both part of the Kpop scene. One is not better than the other, just different.  Fans of Kpop can and do like them both. Idols and non-idols can live peacefully together on an iPod.

Sources:

“JYJ: We Are Still Idol Group,” Han Cinema

leesa86, “M.I.B.: We Are Not an Idol Group,” allkpop

Roundtable, “What Makes an Idol?”, seoulbeats

Jeon Jin Woo, “Sky Full of Airplanes and Chickens that Cannot Fly,” KHUL

SPONJiE, Lee Hyori Transforms into Marilyn Monroe,” soompi

‘Elisabeth’ Brings Death to Life on Stage Next Month,” Han Cinema

dorkykor3an, “Moon Hee Jun and Tony Perform ‘Candy’ for MBC Lunar New Year Special (2012),” allkpop

“Kpop Non-Idol Songs Worth Listening To (Part One),” kpooop

The Unsung And The Unsaid In Kpop

Kpop is subject to a lot of criticism.  A LOT. The most repeated charge against Kpop is that it is manufactured.  But is that really true?  Usually when critics level this charge, they make sweeping generalizations about the whole landscape of pop.  In doing so, they perpetuate stereotypes about the lack of originality in Asian popular culture.

Read more at KPK: Kpop Kollective (originally published January 1, 2012)

The Unsung And The Unsaid In Kpop

Originally published on KPK: Kpop Kollective on January 1, 2012 by CeeFu

Kpop is subject to a lot of criticism.  A LOT. The most repeated charge against Kpop is that it is manufactured.  But is that really true?  Usually when critics level this charge, they make sweeping generalizations about the whole landscape of pop.  In doing so, they perpetuate stereotypes about the lack of originality in Asian popular culture.

It seems almost obligatory for anyone writing about Kpop to describe it as manufactured. Critics frequently focus on Kpop idol artists, who, in addition to making music, participate in other forms of entertainment, including variety shows and Kdramas, fashion shoots, endorsements and commercial films. In some ways it make sense.  Idol artists dominate Hallyu, and tend to be the most visible to audiences outside of Korea.

But critics tend to describe all Kpop artists as manufactured.  In defining Kpop on About.comBill Lamb writes, “As Western influences grew in Korean pop, the concept of the manufactured pop band took root as well.”  Renie of Seoulbeats, in pondering whether or not K-pop is too perfect, writes:  “Of course this all goes back to how idols are trained and manufactured.”  Lucy Williamson of BBC News states: “K-Pop is expensive to produce. The groups are highly manufactured, and can require a team of managers, choreographers and wardrobe assistants, as well as years of singing lessons, dance training, accommodation and living expenses.”

These writers are not wholly wrong. Let’s be real. Given the number of Kpop groups in circulation and the kind of profits that can be made from even a moderately successful group, it is naive to believe their promotion is not deliberate. However, instead of qualifying their statements, critics suggest that it applies to every idol and all members of an idol group.  Critics rarely name the artists against whom they level the charge, thereby qualifying their statements.  As a result, calling all Kpop artists manufactured has resulted in negative connotations.  At the heart of Kpop beats an artificial heart. Because the description is repeated so often without any challenge, it has become accepted as fact.The widespread idea that all Kpop is manufactured is surely a case of wikiality, coined by Stephen Colbert as truth by consensus, where “all we need to do is convince a majority of people that some factoid is true.”

Just because everyone says that Kpop is manufactured does not make it true. In fact, there is a strong case to be made that all Kpop is not manufactured. What does “manufactured” mean, and what do people really mean when they say that Kpop is manufactured?  The Oxford English Dictionary, the grandaddy of dictionaries of the English language, defines it this way:

1. a. Of an article, goods, etc.: produced from raw material, esp. for sale or trade; b. Chiefly depreciative. Of a literary work, a speech, etc.: produced in a mechanical or formulaic way, with little or no creativity, imagination, or originality.

2. Of a story, statement, etc.: fraudulently invented or produced; deliberately fabricated, false.

When writers routinely describe Kpop as “manufactured,” they mean primarily two things: that Kpop idols lack talent, and that the process that creates Kpop is artificial and fake.

Wikiality “Fact” #1: Kpop idols lack talent.

To say that Kpop artists are manufactured suggests that the artists themselves lack talent, and in this way are “fraudulently invented or produced.” Renie suggests this when generalizing about idol trainees:  “Trainees go in as a blank slate but come out as a product that can sing, dance, and sometimes act.”  Similarly, Jangta makes a distinction between singers and entertainers using this spectre of fakeness:  “Many mainstream K-pop groups today are actually strong at only three things. . . Unfortunately, singing isn’t one of them.” (Full disclosure: I am an assistant chief editor and editorial writer for hellokpop. Hey Jangta! :))

But is this true?  Most people would agree that you cannot fake good singing. There is more than enough evidence to prove that many idols can, in fact, sing well. Because Korea still has a live radio culture, idols regularly sing on the radio, a place where they cannot rely on autotune or slick production tricks.  I would imagine folk would regularly call in to complain about an idol’s inability to sing on the radio.

These aren’t even the hardcore idols singers, like Junsu of JYJ (formerly of TVXQ!), Yesung of Super Junior and Heo Young Saeng of SS501, individuals known for their voices.  But wait, you may say, “Every group can luck up and have one person who can sing, but the others are just filler.”  Are they? What do we make of groups that can harmonize, which suggests that all of them can sing?

The point here is that the sweeping generalization that all Kpop idols lack talent is contradicted by the actual landscape of Kpop.

Wikiality “Fact” #2: The training and production process of Kpop creates fake music.

To say that Kpop is manufactured also suggests that the music and the process that creates it lack “creativity, imagination or originality” and is therefore “artificial.” Such music is created through a process that is “mechanical or formulaic” because it is “produced. . . for sale or trade.”   Renie writes, “It irks me that the industry thinks idols can be formulated as if they are some sort of math problem.”  In a review of a review of an article, IATFB suggests that the basis of the comparison of Kpop groups and American pop groups like *NSYNC and Backstreet Boys rests on, “a corporate-vetted, manufactured sound.”   These statements suggest that the people who are involved in the production of Kpop are also talentless hacks who produce sucky music and janky dance routines.

But does a deliberate process of training individuals to sing and dance equal artificiality?  Let’s explore one of the first “manufactured” groups on the planet: The Monkees. In 1965, two producers wanted to capitalize on the popularity of The Beatles by creating a television series about a rock and roll group. When they couldn’t find a group to star in the series, they made one. They cast four guys: two musicians (Michael Nesmith and Peter Tork), a singer (Davy Jones) and a guitarist (Micky Dolenz).  However, in need a drummer, they trained Dolenz to play drums. While they played their instruments on tour, they did not play on the albums.

Sound familiar? Here’s the thing: these guys were not just picked for their good looks or their charisma. They had talent, but more importantly, the artistic team behind them, the writers and composers of their songs, also had talent.  Some of their biggest hits were written by people whose talent credentials were hard to question.  For example, Neil Diamond, inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2011, wrote I’m A Believer. The people who played the instruments on their albums were veteran musicians. Just because the process by which a group is created is deliberately designed to be commercial does not mean that the actual music and those who create it are fake.

Similarly, the creative people behind Kpop idols are talented, even as they produce music made for commercial consumption (which is no different from any other pop music artist, I might add). While we were mesmerized by the members of Super Junior in the intro to the Mr. Simple video, has anyone wondered who sings that jazzy intro?  Because it’s not anyone in Super Junior:

That is Yoo Young Jin. Most people don’t know who he is, but he is the man responsible in some way for nearly every hit by artists of SM Entertainment, and, a talented singer in his own right.  Have you heard Young Jin sing? Would a person who can sing himself produce lots of people who can’t sing? Would he deliberately make his own albums suck? No, because that does not make sense.

What about the choreographers?  Jangta refers to the “easy-to-do” dance moves of Kpop artists.  This is not easy:

I can’t do this, and I’m willing to bet most of you can’t either. Ask a dance cover team if these are easy moves. These moves do not make themselves. They are the product of trained choreographers, and one of the best known is Rino Nakasone.  Nakasone, along with Sim Jaewon, are responsible for the choreography of both of these routines. Before choreographing for SME, Nakasone was a principal dancer working with Janet Jackson and Gwen Stefani and a choreographer for Britney Spears.

Impact on Asian Popular Culture

So what?  Stating that Kpop is manufactured takes away agency from those who produce it (most of whom are Asian) and contributes to the larger misconception that Asian culture is mere an imitation of other (read Western) cultures.

Most people would have you believe that idols have no agency. Renie seems to believe they are automatons who just do what they are told. But let me get a little philosophical on you. Antonio Gramsci, an Italian philosopher, talks about hegemony, where dominance occurs as the result of consent, meaning that those who have less power are not just forced or coerced into their positions.  Just because you may not have a lot of power does not mean you don’t have any power. Your consent is needed by those who have more power than you.

In relation to Kpop idols, they give their consent by participating in the Kpop business, but they also get something out of it. They are not mindless automatons. For every story you hear about an idol suing their company, there are untold stories of idols traveling around the world, learning new languages, learning to write and produce music, receiving royalties from the songs they write and generally having experiences they would not otherwise have.  It is too simplistic to say that Kpop idols just do what they are told.

To repeatedly say that Kpop idols do not have agency participates in a long-standing discourse that says Asians do not have agency.  Any Chinese, Japanese or Korean history course can tell you about the repeated incursions by Western powers as well as other Asian powers, but I’ve found no better illustration of this than Bruce Lee‘s iconic scene in Fist of Fury, where he insists that China is not “the sick man of Asia.”

To repeatedly say that Kpop is mere imitation perpetuates the idea that any form of Asian popular culture, particularly those that are very successful, is merely imitative.   Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic write that success among Asian cultures has been explained in negative terms before. Asians are described as “chameleons who, with no culture of their own, take on the cultural coloration of the society around them. . . . The negative aspect of this stereotype is not the purported adaptability, which could be considered a positive trait. Rather, it is the specific form of that adaptation, which is described as purely imitative with no creative component. . . . Asians. . . have similarly been described as imitative and without a culture of their own” (581-581).  When Nakasone is a principal dancer with Janet Jackson or Gwen Stefani, or choreographing for Britney Spears, it’s all cool, but when she choreographs Lucifer for SHINee or Keep Your Head Down for TVXQ!,  her moves suddenly become robotic.  Why? Because the dancers are Asian?

Kpop needs as much critical attention as it can get. But, it’s problematic when it comes in the form of generalized statements that perpetuate erroneous notions about Kpop in particular, and Asian popular culture in general. More nuanced critiques supported by concrete examples would go a long way to making the discussion more fruitful and enlarging the conversation on the impact of the success of Kpop on its quality.

Sources:
Renie, “Is K-pop Too Perfect?” seoulbeats.com
Lucy Williamson, “The Dark Side of South Korean Pop Music,” BBC News
Bill Lamb, “K-Pop,” about.com
Jangta, “How K-pop May Have Lowered Korean Music Standards,” hellokpop.com
IATFB, Critical Eye: Soompi’s Editorial On ‘Sick of K-pop Cult’ Article a Hypocritical Mess,” asianjunkie.com
Wikiality, Wikipedia in Culture, Wikipedia.com
The Monkees, Wikipedia.com
Dominic Mastroianni, Hegemony in Antonio Gramsci, emory.edu
Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge, Google Books, 580-581.
Video Sources:
vivioncifer, Onew singing 다행이다 (It’s Fortunate) @ Ten Ten Club, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZihcUx_Te-c
mydeko, hyungjun sings love like this, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SlR828XJqHA&feature=related
mugglestudio, SS501 Acapella in Japan 2007, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u_Las4JeRKY
SM Entertainment, Mr. Simple, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r6TwzSGYycM
SM Entertainment, Lucifer Dance Version, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ovztfpWPo5M
SM Entertainment, Keep Your Head Down Dance Version, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mm490aUEAZ8

 

Why I Do Kpop Even Though Chuckleheads Keep Giving Me The Side-Eye

Originally published on July 30, 2011 on KPK: Kpop Kollective by CeeFu

 

Hey shorty…It’s me (Kpop)

I gotta tell you something

It’s about us

I’ve been seeing other people

Millions of other people, around the world

I really think this is gonna work out baby

I’m not sorry

–KPK’s Reimagining of Eric’s intro to Shinhwa’s Crazy


“You cannot understand Kpop unless you are Korean.”

Recently, I heard this statement, in more than one place, uttered by more than one person.  Not only is this perception narrow-minded and old-fashioned, it does not reflect the international reality of Kpop.

Let me start by saying one thing: this is not personal. This is not about Koreans. This is about this STATEMENT and IDEA about Korean popular culture. The love is overflowing here at KPK for Koreans, all things Korean and fans of all things Korean. So it’s only out of love that I say this: when people say that you have to be Korean to understand Kpop, my darlings, you are wrong. In the spirit of full disclosure, I should say that I am not Korean (I know, shocking!).

I have heard that you have to be Korean in order to understand Kpop from people who should know better: Korean academics.  So part of this post has some big words and stuff,  but don’t worry: I’m going to break it down!

When Korean academics says you have to be Korean to understand Kpop, it does not mean that you need to know the Korean language to understand Korean lyrics in Korean popular music. It means that there is something basically Korean about Kpop that you cannot understand because you are not Korean. They are saying that it (Kpop) is a Korean thing, and you wouldn’t understand. This is troubling coming from academics because it is essentialist. What is essentialism?  According to the Sage Dictionary of Cultural Studies, essentialism:

Refers to the argument that there are fixed truths to be found about identity categories so that there exists an essence of, for example, women, Australians, the working class and Asians. Here words refer to fixed essences and thus identities are regarded as being stable entities. (61)

What this basically means is that when people say that all Asians are this way, or all women are that way, they are thinking that there is something basic about women or Asians that every woman or Asian has that makes them a woman or Asian.  You can only be Asian or a woman if you have these traits, and only these traits. But what if the traits are something that all members of the group do not have? Are they still part of the group? If you don’t have dark hair, does not exclude you from being Asian? (we know Asians have many different hair colors).  If you don’t have children, does this exclude you from being a woman? (we know lots of women who don’t have children). You see how this could become problematic, because essentialism basically lumps everyone together in ways that do not match the reality we see.

Ok, so why is essentialism bad? Christopher Warley answers this question this way:

Essentialism is bad because it is socially oppressive. It blindly stresses one side of a binary opposition (high not low; inside not outside; left not right); it naturalizes and universalizes the interests of a particular group (capitalists, men, The West, whatever) in order to dominate another group (workers, women, The East, whatever).

Ok, so let’s apply this to Kpop.  When people say that you have to be Korean to understand Kpop, they are an example of “inside not outside.” Koreans, because of their “Koreanness”, understand Kpop. If you are not Korean, you do not have this “Koreanness”, so sucks to be you. But remember that people are different, cultures are diverse, so how can there be this universal “Koreanness”? So what about Koreans who don’t know Kpop, or don’t like Kpop, or (gasp) don’t understand Kpop? That undermines the whole “all Koreans have this “Koreanness”/you have to be Korean to understand Kpop” argument.  Do you have to be Chinese to understand kung fu? Black to understand hip hop? Irish to understand Riverdance? You see how silly this gets, right?

So we know that there are millions of fans of Kpop around the world, who don’t speak Korean, who are not Korean, who understand Kpop. Because I think EVERYONE understands THIS:

You do not have to be Korean or know Korean to understand what Junsu is putting down in this video. Everyone understands the body roll.

Even more ironic is that so much of what makes up Hallyu Kpop comes from other cultures, especially American culture, ESPECIALLY African American culture.  For example, let’s look at TVXQ’s Keep Your Head Down (yeah, that’s right, ANOTHER TVXQ video, just sit down and watch):

And this, a marching band sequence from the 2002 movie Drumline (sorry about the sound, but this was the best video I could find):

See anything similar? Hear anything similar? I’m not one of those people who are saying that Kpop is imitating African American culture. What I am saying is that a good deal of Hallyu Kpop is a mixture of Korean and African American popular culture.  I NOT mad at that.  So it would follow that in order to understand Kpop, you really need to understand Korean and African American culture.  From what I’ve read from some of my Korean academic counterparts, this is not always the case. I’m not saying that they couldn’t form arguments based on some knowledge of African American culture. I’m saying that they tend not to. :\

Need more evidence?  Who is Yunho’s favorite singer?  Michael Jackson. Who does Onew count as one of his favorite singers? Stevie Wonder.  Who does Eunhyuk, Shindong and Donghae imitate in the Super Show? Beyonce.

And what about Big Mama?

Yes people, that’s some straight up GOSPEL they are putting down for you. My point is, that really to understand Kpop, it seems to me that you need to understand the things that go into Kpop.

I really thought that in this day and age, we all understood that no one owns cultures, that cultures travel, intermingle, make friends. Once your culture decides to go global, you can’t control that. It’s going to do what it do. And,  people who are not OF that culture can STUDY that culture. I really thought that what matters is what you KNOW when it comes to talking about a subject, not who you are. But in the two times I’ve heard the statement, there was no mention made of what others may know, just the assumption that if you are not Korean, you can’t know anything worth knowing. At least call non-Koreans out on whether or not they know all the members of Super Junior, know that Jay Park used to be in 2PM, know that Cheongdung of MBLAQ and Dara of 2NE1 are related, know the debut date of SS501. I don’t care about who you are, I care about what. you. know. And if you can take the time to learn about Kpop, then why can’t you speak about Kpop?

I am not Korean. I know as long as I live I will not know everything there is to know about Kpop.   I will never be able to tell you what Koreans think about Kpop like someone who has spent a large chunk of time in the culture or studying the culture (my research tends to focus on what international audiences think about Kpop). But what should matter is that whatever I say about Kpop has an argument that makes sense and that is well-supported by evidence. I know I know a little something something, and when I speak about my little something something, I’m fairly confident that I know what I’m talking about.  We can discuss it until the cows come home; reasonable people can reasonably disagree. But you just cannot dismiss out of hand people who aren’t Korean, who know their Kpop and like it. Last time I checked, Kpop was equal opportunity.

And this is not to say that ALL Koreans hold this opinion. I know there are lots of Koreans who throw their arms wide open for anyone who is down for Kpop.

So, if you think that only Koreans can “understand” Kpop, then YOU don’t understand Kpop.

Sources:

Chris Barker, The Sage Dictionary of Cultural Studies.Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2004.

Christopher Warley, Patience: Still A Virtue, Arcade